Consultancy on catalyzing the inclusion of WASH in
Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)
review process for Tanzania
Call for Applications
Water is the primary medium through which climate change influences the Earth’s ecosystem and thus the livelihood and well-being of societies. Climate change directly impacts water resources and water services for all economic, social and environmental functions that water supports. Therefore, the impacts reach into many sectorial interests such as health, tourism, agriculture and industry. With water scarcity and extreme weather events becoming the new norm in many parts of the world, it’s crucial to note that the effects of climate change would be felt first and foremost through water systems. Indeed, water is predicted to be the main channel through which the impacts of climate change will be felt by people, ecosystems and economies. The UN synthesis report on SDG6 raises a similar warning, that the maximum effect of climate change will be experienced through changes in hydrological cycle, such as overall water availability, water quality and frequency of extreme weather events such as floods and droughts.
Water availability is becoming less predictable in many places, and increased incidences of flooding causes destruction of water points and sanitation facilities, contamination of water sources (cholera, typhoid etc.) and destruction of shelter and livelihoods. Water scarcity and poor water quality increases the risk of diarrhea, which kills approximately 2.2 million people every year, trachoma an eye infection that can lead to blindness.
The drying up of rivers and wells is becoming common due to less precipitation which is in itself an effect of climate change. In some regions, droughts are exacerbating water scarcity and thereby negatively impacting people’s health and productivity. Higher temperatures and more extreme, less predictable, weather conditions are projected to affect availability and distribution of rainfall, snowmelt, river flows, and groundwater, and further deteriorate water quality. Low-income communities, who are already the most vulnerable to any threats to water supply are likely to be worst affected. Changes in water availability will also impact health and food security and have already proven to trigger climate change-induced migration, refugee dynamics, and political instability. WASH should, therefore, be a critical component in adaptation discourse.
Extending and securing access to water and sanitation services could play a key role in poverty reduction. Households could benefit through a range of health, educational, nutritional and broader livelihood impacts; local, regional and national economies could also benefit from greater economic activity, spending and investment; and over the longer term, households and economies could benefit through greater resilience to climate change. In monetary terms, the numbers are compelling: combined water supply and sanitation interventions have a combined return of at least US$4.3 for every dollar invested (Hutton, 2012), if services can be sustained in the face of multiple risks, including that posed by climate change.
The nexus between WASH and climate change has not been thoroughly interrogated and these two concepts have been seen as separate entities yet the two are closely related.
Perhaps the biggest milestone for the global community in addressing climate change was in signing of the Paris agreement which is supposed to be a roadmap which guides our efforts in combating climate change. The implementation of the Paris agreement was expected to begin in 2020. Many countries submitted their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) which indicates the targets in emission reductions and the strategies of implementation. However, most of the NDCs are silent on the water sector which is a serious gap. The NDCs are now due for revision and this presents a good opportunity to incorporate water sector in the new designs of the NDCs.
The extent to which a country’s regulatory and policy framework meets the requirements associated with implementing its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) gives an initial measure of its appropriateness. NDCs implementation is likely to present challenges that are distinct from those posed by prior climate change policies and plans, in that the goals of NDCs will typically require more rapid and coordinated action compared to traditional climate change goals.
The NDCs should go beyond political statements of intent. They should be seen as a direct starting point for practical action. Converting NDCs into investment plans and turn NDC concepts into actions that will set Africa on a low carbon and climate resilient development pathway is the way to go. However, the quality of the NDCs submitted will greatly determines whether the Africa nations will successfully achieve low carbon development.
Most of the NDCs submitted by the African Nations were done in a hurry and they missed out on a number of important aspects. Water is one of the sectors which has not been adequately covered in the NDCs. Additionally, most of these NDCs are conditional which indicates that their implementation is dependent on availability of external funds.
The NDCs are due for review this year but this process has also been affected by the COVID 19 Pandemic. Most of the Countries are busy struggling to contain the pandemic and even after the pandemic, the focus will shift to reconstruction of the economies post COVID 19; this means that NDC review processes may take a back stage but there is also an opportunity for the countries to include NDCs as part of the recovery plans; in fact Leaders of the United Nations, the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and others have called on governments to align their economic recovery packages with work on national climate plans (Nationally Determined Contributions, or NDCs) due this year under the Paris Climate Change Agreement.
The countries have an uphill task to deliver the revised NDCs before the year ends. This presents an opportunity for none state actors to support the review process and to influence inclusion of critical sectors like water in the NDCs. PACJA proposes to support 5 Designated National platforms namely; Uganda, Zambia, Tanzania, Nigeria and Ethiopia to carry out a rapid assessment of their countries’ NDC and pick out some of the gaps in the NDCs and especially those that relate to WASH. The platforms will then hold meetings with the government officials and other stakeholders and lobby for inclusion of WASH in the revision exercise of the NDCs
Task of the consultant
- To Carry out an assessment of the gaps in the NDCs of Tanzania in respect to WASH and produce an outcome report that will be used to inform the review process and integration of WASH where gaps will be identified
- To develop policy briefs on the integration of WASH in NDC review process
The whole task should be finished within five (5) weeks from the starting date (signing of the contract).
Reporting and presentation
The Consultant will work under the supervision of Executive Director
The consultant will keep FORUMCC updated on the progress of the planning at all times
The consultant will submit the report in both electronic version and signed hard copy. The document should be very precise and address the objectives
The copyright of the materials generated by the consultant including the report and policy brief; will remain the exclusive right of FORUMCC
The mode of payment for consultancy fee and any other costs as per the contract will be discussed and agreed with the successful consultant and the consultancy fees will include VAT per Government policy. Our regulations will be used during negotiations.
All the outputs produced by this activity will be treated as the FORUMCC’s resources. So any part of it cannot be sold, used or reproduced in any manner by the assigned consultant/team without prior permission from FORUMCC.